Foreign investment in Ukraine. The end of XIX — the beginning of the XX centuries

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Nowadays Ukraine, considering the prospects for economic development, associates them with integration into the European Economic Community.

Therefore, the study of historical experience, which clearly gives us examples of successful economic cooperation between different European structures, both at the national and regional levels, is very relevant. An example of such cooperation is Kryvyi Rig-Prydniprovia-Donetsk subregion of the Great South of Ukraine, which, in the XIX – beginning of the ХХ century, became the centre for attracting of the entrepreneurial capital and experience from England, France, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, thanks to which a unique industrial complex (the former Katerynoslav province — modern Dnipropetrovsk, Lugansk, Donetsk, Zaporizhia regions) was created here.

Entrepreneurial capital brought forth from the advanced capitalist countries not only the technical equipment and technology of industrial production, but also business skills, management experience of large enterprises, connections with banking and industrial groups, and, of course, the spirit of capitalist entrepreneurship, thus contributing to the industrialization of Ukraine.

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The role of external factors in the process of industrialization was the most significant for Ukraine, which was part of the Russian Empire. The rich in natural resources land — iron and manganese ore, coal, require significant eff orts and funds for their industrial development. Owing to foreign investment, the South Industrial Region finally formed, and there appeared the branches of heavy industry, without which further industrial growth of the country was impossible. The industrial boom revived the life of the region population, having created jobs for tens of thousands of its inhabitants.

Foreign capital was active in mining, metallurgy, engineering, chemical and construction fields, in the field of urban transport (trams) and electricity. Images of new gigantic metallurgical and machine-building factories, metal mines and coalmines impressed the imagination of contemporaries of those events — a large number of exquisite illustrated materials — photographs and portraits of foreign and Ukrainian entrepreneurs, managers and founders of companies and individual enterprises, unique photographic works of plants, documentary material, advertisement, photo production of factories and, of course, documents of value with autographs of well-known figures of industrial advance — F. Yenakiyev, M. Avdakov, I. Yasiukovych, O. Putilov, J. Shoduar, H. Pastera, Rene-Raul Duvall, T. Lombardo, A. Solve, Louis Lambert, E. Pasteur, L. Rosheran, Baron Eli D. Wassel, H. Hartman, A. Rootstein, I. Poliakova, M. Verstrat and many others. This is a real and reliable material about the socioeconomic processes and events that took place in Kryvorizhia, Prydniprovia and Donbass during the time of capitalist modernization (the end of the ХІХ – the beginning of the ХХ centuries).

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These processes played an important role in the future formation not only of Ukraine and Russia, but also the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, and identified the important role and place of this region in the history of Ukraine. Geography of the foreign enterprises activities — the most diverse — is Katerynoslav (modern Dnipro), Kamianske, Kryvyi Rih, Verkhniodniprovsk and Nyzhniodniprovsk, Lugansk, Mariupol, Uspensk, Gorlivka, Debaltsevo, Toretsk, Irmino, Kramatorsk, Nikopol, Aleksandrovsk (modern Zaporizhia), Donetsk, Yenakiyeve, Khartsyzsk, Sartana; many enterprises, created in the 1890s, work to this date.

By V.I.Lazebnyk, Head of the Department of Scientifi c Research of the Dnipropetrovsk National Historical Museum named after D. Yavornytsky, Dnipro City